The lights in a pause of representation is in an anonymous engraving of the eighteenth century, also appeared the boxes of proscenium, front rows of the audience, the orchestra and the box pointer. The offices of the theater are the various professional occupations that make theatrical performance possible.
In the western theater made from the sixteenth century there have been various theatrical trades, many of them already disappeared. There are several of them mentioned such as structured types or bodies of work.
Although the figure of the manager is relatively late in the history of theater, there was always a leader or responsible who owned the theater company. In the process of evolution, they can at least be nominally distinguished;
The author, also playwright, for centuries was identified with the task manager. He created the figure of ‘new author’ referring to that has not commercially released any of his works.
Director is the highest authority in the theatrical creation and often works in contact with the figures of author, stage director and/or alderman. The director can cover the figure of production manager.
He is the holder of the office of alderman. He is usually identified with the stage director and veteran office of prompter. He can be considered as the great mediator between the different bodies which stage the show.
He used to be a boy with a symbolic salary and compensation of tips collected from the actors. His function was to warn them or call them on stage as alderman guidelines or directors instructed.
The evolution of the theatrical phenomenon was creating professional figures such as the set designer, which in turn have been growing in importance to occupy a prominent place in a representation within the body of creative direction.
Body of Actors
The set of actors, for centuries called ‘representatives’, has generated a small subset of types because of their category or aspiration. Thus we have the following;
Beard or whiskers
Character actor, very common from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, specializing in old papers.
Actor covering generally in the case of the actresses, who play also old matrons or love travel.
In the theater of the Golden Age, it is so called the actor or presenter in a brief introductory recitative, preparing the public for performance that was to be presented.
Helper or stooge.
Aspiring actor or a theatrical performance, usually it has no lines of text, or are short.
It was created to support and guide the actors on stage.
The Roman theater was a typical construction of the Empire, in all provinces, whose purpose was the dramatic interpretation of the works of Greek and Latin.
Theaters, Amphitheatres and Roman Circuses
The policy of Romanization of the conquered peoples made theaters, as well as built amphitheaters, circuses, forums and temples with similar features throughout the Empire, from Hispania to Levante. In Greece and the regions of Hellenized, these buildings had both architectural elements Romans and Greek. While there are certain similarities between circuses, theaters and amphitheatres, both in its construction were used stone and mortar, and its purpose was that to entertain the citizens of their leisure time and prestige of the benefactors where each had different functions and forms which are as follows;
- The circus was used for racing, especially chariot.
- The amphitheater was used for circus games and fighting gladiators.
- The theater finally was where different types of plays were performed.
The main features of the Roman Theater led to the beginning of the Greek theater, as many of the general characteristics of Roman architecture derived directly from the architecture of the Hellenistic period.
- The first theaters were built of wood and adobe; they were demolished after the event for which they were erected ended. A law prevented the construction of permanent theaters, however, at 55 AC, Theatre of Pompey was built with a temple to avoid the law. Over time, Roman theaters developed specific characteristics. Most of the preserved Roman theaters followed the architectural model proposed by Vitruvius, comprising of the following;
- Scaenae frons (stage front): usually composed of a double order of columns.
- Orchestra: semicircle or a little more than a semicircle in front of the scene in which authorities sat acted choir and an altar stood in honor of Dionysus.
- Aditus: corridors side entrance to the orchestra.
- Cavea: semicircular structure in which, according to social rank, viewers were located. It was divided in cavea ima, media and summa cavea, divided by horizontal corridors. It was divided into circular sectors.
- Vomitoria: posts vaulted by which it agreed to the cávea.
- Proscaenium: space in front of the scene in which the dramatic action unfolded.
- Porticus post scaenam (Porch behind the scene): arcaded courtyard with columns behind the scenes.
Some theaters could support the cávea on vaulted galleries, while in others, the architects took advantage of the slope of a hill to dig on it over the theater. The theater could be covered with awnings to protect spectators from rain or sunlight. In addition, many theaters contained small temples in their structure. Each Roman social class had its specific place in the theater; the proedria for senators, the ima cavea for gentlemen, the media cavea for free plebe, the cavea summa for freedmen and slaves and matroneo for women.